Useful Links and Additional Resources

What is FASD

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FASD and Involvement in the Justice System

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FASD and Transitioning into Employment

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Fact sheets


What is FASD?

Interview Adjustments

Dos and don’ts of recruiting someone with FASD

Cognition at Work_ Accommodations for Attention

Cognition at Work_ Accommodations for Supporting Generalisation, Learning and Memory

Cognition at Work_ Accommodations for Language and Communication Difficulties

Cognition at Work_ Accommodations for Decision-making and judgments

FASD and Cognition at Work_ Accommodations for Task Initiation and Completion

FASD and Cognition at Work_ Accommodations for Impulsivity

FASD and Cognition at Work_ Accommodations for Self-Awareness

Tips for Interview adjustments for Persons with FASD with Criminal Backgrounds

Creating successful Mentoring Relationships


Challenges Transitioning out of the Justice System into Employment

Strengths of People with FASD

Adopting a FASD informed approach

Eight Magic Keys to Supporting a Person with FASD

Natural Workplace Supports for Employees with FASD

Links to Useful Resources

Justice Employment Project Resource

Acknowledgement of participants

The FASD Justice Employment Project implemented by Patches,  received funding from the Australian Government.

Patches acknowledges all those that have been involved in the development of this resource.

This project has been led by Kirrily Clarke: Project Manager Patches, Dr Annabelle Nankoo: Senior Research Officer UWA and Dr James Fitzpatrick: CEO of Patches.


UWA: Dr Carmela Pestell, Dr Kristen Panton

Cultural Advisor: Isabelle Adams

360Edge: Dr Richard Cash

MCI Solutions: Jenna Baskin / Gavin Wedell / Daniel Friedman

Real Drug Talk/ Experience Matters: Jack Nagle

APM: Marina Chalmers

Particular appreciation is show to:

SWI Fencing, Chris Crawford, Mish Gerovish, Lola Meirs, Jamie Pinnell, Brittany Beatty, Adrian Edwards and Bailey Willis-Cunningham for their invaluable input.

Films by:


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  5. Clarren, S., Halliwell, C.I., Werk, C.M., Sebaldt, R. J., Petrie, A., Lilley, C., & Cook, J. (2015). Using a common form for consistent collection and reporting of FASD data from across Canada: a feasibility study. Journal of Population Therapeutic and Clinical Pharmacology, 22, 211–28.
  6. Corrado, R. R., & McCuish, E. C. (2015). The development of early onset, chronic, and versatile offending: The role of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and mediating factors. International Journal of Child and Adolescent Health, 8(2), 241-250. Retrieved from
  7. Department of Health (2018). National Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) Strategic Action Plan 2018 – 2028. Retrieved from
  8. Fast, D. K., & Conry, J. (2009). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and the criminal justice system. Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 15(3), 250 – 257. Doi: 10.1002/ddrr.66.
  9. Fitzpatrick, J., Latimer, J., Olson, H. C., Carter, M., Oscar, J., Lucas, B. R… Elliott, E. J. (2017). Prevalence and profile of Neurodevelopment and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) amongst Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 65, 114 – 126.
  10. Green, C., Cook, J. L., Stewart, M., & Salmon, A. (n.d). FASD and the criminal justice system. Canada FASD Research Network. Retrieved from
  11. Kapasi, A., Makela, M. L., Flannigan, K., Joly, V., & Pei, J. (2019). Understanding employment success in adults with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 51, 377 – 393. Doi: 10.3233/JVR-191053
  12. Kippin, N. R., Leitao, S., Watkins, R., Finlay-Jones, A., Condon, C., Marriott, R.,… & Bower, C. (2018). Language diversity, language disorder, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder among youth sentenced to detention in Western Australia. International Journal of Law Psychiatry, 61, 40 – 49. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijlp.2018.09.004.
  13. Makela, M., Kapasi, A., & Pei, J. Guide for employment professionals: Supporting employment in adults with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Retrieved from
  14. Makela, M., Kapasi, A., & Pei, J. Guide for employment professionals: Supporting employment in adults with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder Version 2. Retrieved from
  15. Professionals-Supporting-Employment-in-Adults-with-FASD.pdf Rutman, D. (2016). Becoming FASD informed: strengthening practice and programs working with women with FASD. Substance Use in Pregnancy: Research and Treatment, 10(S1), 13 – 20. Doi: 10.4137/SART.S34543.
  16. Mutch, R. C., Watkins, R., & Bower, R. (2015). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: notifications to the Western Australian register of developmental anomalies. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 51, 433 – 436. Doi: 10.1111/jpc.12746.
  17. Popova, S., Lange, S., Probst, C., Gmel, G., Rehm, J. (2017). Estimation of national, regional, and global prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy and fetal alcohol syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Global Health, 5(3), 2909 – 299. 
  18. Popova, S., Lange, S., Shield, K., Mihic, A., Chudley, A. E., Mukherjee, R. A. S., … Rehm, J. (2016). Comorbidity of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet, 387, 978 – 987. 
  19. Radford-Paz, E. (2013). Risk and protective factors for criminality among adults with FASD. Master’s thesis, Laurentian University, Sudbury, ON 
  20. Streissguth, A., Bookstein, F., Barr, H., Sampson, P., O’Malley, K., & Young, J. (2004). Risk factors for adverse life outcomes in fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects. Journal of Developmental Behaviour and Pediatrics. 25, 228–238. doi: 10.1097/00004703-200408000-