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Useful Links and Additional Resources

What is FASD

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FASD and Involvement in the Justice System

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FASD and Transitioning into Employment

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FactsheetsClick to download PDF

Understanding FASD factsheets

Supporting employment factsheets

Supporting cognition in the workplace factsheets

Work related supports chartsClick to download PDF

Acknowledgement of participants

The FASD Justice Employment Project implemented by Patches, received funding from the Australian Government.

This project has been led by Dr James Fitzpatrick: CEO of Patches, Kirrily Clarke: Project Manager Patches, and Dr Annabelle Nankoo: Senior Research Officer UWA.

In addition to;

University of Western Australia: Dr Carmela Pestell / Dr Kirsten Panton

Cultural Advisor: Isabelle Adams

360Edge: Dr Richard Cash

MCI Solutions: Jenna Baskin / Gavin Wedell / Daniel Friedman

Real Drug Talk / Experience Matters: Jack Nagle

APM: Marina Chalmers

Professional Reference Group members from SWI Fencing, Perth: EDGE Employment Solutions WA: Community Bridging Services SA: Aboriginal Legal Service WA: Department of the Attorney General and Justice NT: Northern Territory Local Court: North Australian Justice Agency: Safe Places Perth: Hunter New England District Youth Court. 

Aboriginal Advisory Group: Isabelle Adams: Mara West: Patricia Oakley and Frank Procter. 

Huge appreciation to the work of the Community Reference Group: Mish Gerovich: Lola Miers: Jamie Pinnell: Chris Crawford in addition to our film talent Adrian Edwards: Brittany Beatty and Bailey Willis-Cunningham. 

Artwork by Annette Kogolo. 

Films by Trav Morrison from FilmsByTrav. 


  1. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2014). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Strategies to address information gaps. Retrieved from https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia
  2. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2015). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a review of interventions for prevention and management in Indigenous communities. Resource sheet no. 36 prepared by the Closing the Gap Clearinghouse. Retrieved from https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/778f54f3-5618-428f-a094-40c347ed3c7f/ctgc-rs36.pdf.aspx?inline=true
  3. Bower, C., Watkins, R. E., Mutch, R. C., Marriott, R., Freeman, J., Kippin, N., R. ,… & Giglia, R. (2018). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and youth justice: a prevalence study among young people sentenced to detention in Western Australia. BMJ Open, 8, 1 – 11. Doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019605corr1.
  4. Burd, L. (2016). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: complexity from comorbidity. Lancet, 387(10022), 926 – 927.
  5. Clarren, S., Halliwell, C.I., Werk, C.M., Sebaldt, R. J., Petrie, A., Lilley, C., & Cook, J. (2015). Using a common form for consistent collection and reporting of FASD data from across Canada: a feasibility study. Journal of Population Therapeutic and Clinical Pharmacology, 22, 211–28.
  6. Corrado, R. R., & McCuish, E. C. (2015). The development of early onset, chronic, and versatile offending: The role of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and mediating factors. International Journal of Child and Adolescent Health, 8(2), 241-250. Retrieved from https://www-proquest-com.ezproxy.library.uwa.edu.au/scholarly-journals/development-early-onset-chronic-versatile/docview/1706180029/se-2?accountid=14681
  7. Department of Health (2018). National Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) Strategic Action Plan 2018 – 2028. Retrieved from https://www.health.gov.au/sites/default/files/national-fasd-strategic-action-plan-2018-2028.pdf
  8. Fast, D. K., & Conry, J. (2009). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and the criminal justice system. Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 15(3), 250 – 257. Doi: 10.1002/ddrr.66.
  9. Fitzpatrick, J., Latimer, J., Olson, H. C., Carter, M., Oscar, J., Lucas, B. R… Elliott, E. J. (2017). Prevalence and profile of Neurodevelopment and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) amongst Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 65, 114 – 126.
  10. Green, C., Cook, J. L., Stewart, M., & Salmon, A. (n.d). FASD and the criminal justice system. Canada FASD Research Network. Retrieved from https://canfasd.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/FASD-and-the-Criminal-Justice-System.pdf
  11. Kapasi, A., Makela, M. L., Flannigan, K., Joly, V., & Pei, J. (2019). Understanding employment success in adults with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 51, 377 – 393. Doi: 10.3233/JVR-191053
  12. Kippin, N. R., Leitao, S., Watkins, R., Finlay-Jones, A., Condon, C., Marriott, R.,… & Bower, C. (2018). Language diversity, language disorder, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder among youth sentenced to detention in Western Australia. International Journal of Law Psychiatry, 61, 40 – 49. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijlp.2018.09.004.
  13. Lange, S., Probst, C., Gmel, G., Rehm, J., Burd, L., & Popova, S. (2017). Global prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder among children and youth. A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatrics, 171(10), 940 – 941.
  14. Makela, M., Kapasi, A., & Pei, J. Guide for employment professionals: Supporting employment in adults with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Retrieved from https://www.nofasd.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Guide-for-Employment-Professionals.pdf.
  15. Makela, M., Kapasi, A., & Pei, J. Guide for employment professionals: Supporting employment in adults with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder Version 2. Retrieved from https://canfasd.ca/wp-content/uploads/publications/Guide-for-Employment-
  16. Professionals-Supporting-Employment-in-Adults-with-FASD.pdf Rutman, D. (2016). Becoming FASD informed: strengthening practice and programs working with women with FASD. Substance Use in Pregnancy: Research and Treatment, 10(S1), 13 – 20. Doi: 10.4137/SART.S34543.
  17. Mutch, R. C., Watkins, R., & Bower, R. (2015). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: notifications to the Western Australian register of developmental anomalies. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 51, 433 – 436. Doi: 10.1111/jpc.12746.
  18. Popova, S., Lange, S., Probst, C., Gmel, G., Rehm, J. (2017). Estimation of national, regional, and global prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy and fetal alcohol syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Global Health, 5(3), 2909 – 299.
  19. Popova, S., Lange, S., Shield, K., Mihic, A., Chudley, A. E., Mukherjee, R. A. S., … Rehm, J. (2016). Comorbidity of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet, 387, 978 – 987.
  20. Radford-Paz, E. (2013). Risk and protective factors for criminality among adults with FASD. Master’s thesis, Laurentian University, Sudbury, ON
  21. Streissguth, A., Bookstein, F., Barr, H., Sampson, P., O’Malley, K., & Young, J. (2004). Risk factors for adverse life outcomes in fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects. Journal of Developmental Behaviour and Pediatrics. 25, 228–238. doi: 10.1097/00004703-200408000-